Rahim Yar Khan City

March 15, 2009 at 9:30 AM (Rahim Yar Khan City) ()

Rahim Yar Khan City

Welcome to Rahim Yar Khan City . This is my first post.

bismillah

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Rahim Yar Khan City Town Hall - Town Hall of Rahim Yar Khan City which was planed in 1948 by Mir Syed Tajamul Hussain who was the Secretary of Municipal Committee, Rahim Yar Khan at that time and was completed in 1953 when he was the Chairman of the Municipality.

Rahim Yar Khan City Town Hall

Rahim Yar Khan.

Introduction.

Rahimyar Khan or Rahim Yar Khan (Urdu: رحیم یار خان) is a famous city in the south of Punjab (Pakistan). Rahim Yar Khan is the capital city of Rahim Yar Khan District as well as the tehsil of the same name. The city itself is administratively subdivided into 9 Union Councils and is one of the few cities in the world that are still at their pioneering places since the formation. It has been renamed customarily amid last 5000 years, first available (on record) name was AROR or ALOR, and then it became City of Pattan, Phul Wada, Noshehra and now Rahim Yar Khan.

In 1883 Nawab Sadiq Khan-IV of Bahawalpur renamed it after his son Rahim Yar Khan. Formerly Rahimyar Khan was also one of the names of the three districts of the former princely State of Bahawalpur until 1955.

Today, Rahimyar Khan lies on an important train route which runs south to Sukkur and north to Bahawalpur. According to the 1998 census, the city population was 233,537 with an annual growth rate of 4.04%. As of January 2007, it is around 330,000.

Rahim Yar khan was declared as a separate administration district in 1943. The district derives its name from its headquarter city Rahim Yar Khan. The previous name of this city was Naushehra which was built in 1875 A.D by Fazal Elahi Halani on the ruins of the ancient Pul-Wadda during the Sumra supremacy in Sindh. In the year 1881, the Railway Authorities desired to change the name of railway station in the name of a town called Nowshera situated in Peshawar district. Consequently in 1881 to avoid any confusion because of similar nomenclature, Nawab Sadiq Khan-IV of Bahawalpur changed the name of the sub-division Naushehra after the name of his first son crown prince Rahim Yar Khan.

Rahim Yar Khan district is located in Punjab. It was declared as a separate administration district in 1943. The district derives its name from its headquarters Rahim Yar Khan. The previous name of this district was Naushehra which was built in 1875 by Fazal Elahi Halani on the ruins of the ancient Pul-Wadda during the Sumra rule in Sindh. Later Nawab Sadiq Khan-IV of Bahawalpur renamed it after his son Rahim Yar Khan.

Rahim Yar Khan is bounded on the north by Muzaffargarh district, on the east by Bahawalpur district, on the south by Jasilmir (India) and Ghotki district of Sindh province and on the west by Rajanpur district.

The total area of the district is 11,880 square kilometers. The district comprises four Tehsils namely Rahim Yar Khan, Sadiqabad, Liaquatpur and Khanpur. There are three municipal committees and five town committees in the district.

Location.

The district lies between 27.40′ – 29.16′ north latitudes and 60.45′ – 70.01′ east longitudes.

Area.

The Area of Rahim Yar Khan City is about 22 square kilometers.

The total area of the district is 11,880 square kilometers. The district comprises four Tehsils namely Rahim Yar Khan, Sadiqabad, Liaquat Pur and Khan Pur. All the Tehsils are Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMA).

Boundaries.

Rahim Yar Khan is bounded on the north by Muzaffargarh district, on the east by Bahawalpur district, on the south by Jasilmair (India) and Ghotki district of Sindh province and on the west by Rajanpur district.

Physical Features and Topography.

This district is divided into three main physical features i.e.

(a) Reverie area,

(b) Canal irrigated area, and

(c) Desert area which is called Choulistan. The Reverie area of the district lies close on the southern side of the Indus River mainly falling on the riverbed. The Canal irrigated area lies on the south and is separated by main Minchin Bund. The approximate height of the irrigated area is 150 to 200 meters above the sea level. The part of the area is called Choulistan lies on the south of the irrigated tract up to the Indo-Pak border. The surface of the desert consists of successions of sand dunes rising at places to a height of 150 meters and covered with the vegetation peculiar to sandy tracts.

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Rahim Yar Khan – History

March 15, 2009 at 9:11 AM (Rahim Yar Khan City) ()

Rahim Yar Khan – History

Welcome to Rahim Yar Khan City . This is my 2nd post.

bismillah

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History.

The city of Rahim Yar Khan is one of the few cities in the world that are still at their pioneering places since the formation like London andDamascus. It has been renamed customarily amid last 5000 years, first available (on record) name was AROR or ALOR, and then it became City of Pattan, Phul Wada, Noshehra and now Rahim Yar Khan. The ancient tower of Pattan Minarah is standing just 13 km away from city center in the south in its original form however the surrounding lands on its very verge have been allotted to army personnel and Punjabi settlers for agriculture purpose, and the water for nurturing of lands is damaging the underground pedestal of this great monument and the tower has been entering in the surface gradually. As the ruling clique or administrating authority does not belong to the area nor have any interest with the culture of thousand years old most civilized nation (of its time) of Indus Valley, they are allotting the lands to Punjabis who do not care the historical heritage, culture, traditions and living styles of inhabitants but their tummies. The monument of Pattan Minarah was the most remarkable primordial water route of great Indus valley civilization over the Ghaghra/Hacra River in the days of yore. Traditions assert that the city in the days of its prosperity extended over a hundred square miles. The ancient name of city of Pattan is Alor or Aror, which was the capital of Mousicanus, who, after a brief submission to Alexander, revolted and was crucified in 325 B.C. In the 10th century Pattan was rebuilt by the Sumras, whose capital it remained for a long time and renamed it as Phul Wada. According to legends the city of Pattan destroyed due to the wickedness of woman. Virtually two third of district Rahim Yar Khan is covered by the desert of Choulistan or Rohi.

Administratively Choulistan is divided between three districts of Bahawalpur division: Bahawalpur, Bahawal Nagar and Rahim Yar Khan. Because of its warm climate Choulistan is also the domain of most deadly snakes. In all about sixty varieties are found. (Sah-Pivna) or Breath Sucker is supposed to be the most dangerous snake and subject of curious beliefs. It is said not to bite in day time even if held in hand, but at night it crawls in a sleeper’s breast and poison its breath (by mingling its breath with that of its victim), striking him with sleepers side with its tail, so that awaking he may find no weapon to hand. People in Choulistan usually sleep with a lamp burning in the houses as Sah-Pivna is said to be a friend of light. However, the most delightful aspect of Choulistan is its bird life. The country abounds in birds, such as pigeons, peacocks, crows, mynas and larks etc. but the migrant Houbara bustards can also be found after October, which attract hankering hunters from gulf and around the world to the region.
Rahim Yar Khan is the capital city of district Rahim Yar Khan. It is striking nucleus extent city located on the south-western verge Punjab, bordering exquisite Rajasthan in south and Sindh in west. City’s population is just under three hundred thousand while district have over 3 million. Virtually 40% of people in the region are settlers from Punjab, which occupied nigh on all civil services of all level and commerce of the city, and they have been allotted massive magnitude of rural lands while the denizens are living in peasantry. The district contains four Tehsils (cities) “Sadik-a-Bad, Rahim Yar Khan, Liaquat Pur and Khan Pur” and ten sub-Tehsils (towns). Agriculture is the core source of revenue and the district has quite enormously rich cultivating lands. Cotton is the main crop of district but wheat, rice and sugar cane are also cultivated immensely. Mangoes and cotton goods are main export to the western countries and gulf. Right now Rahim Yar Khan is connected with the world by an international airport, 3rd generation of mobile phone technology and internet. It has bustling bazaars, educational institutes and health centers.

When Alexander gained victory over Multan, he appointed General Philips to rule Multan and Uch and advanced himself towards Alor. The country remained under Philips, who was afterwards driven out by Poros after the death of Alexander. This part of the country is also said to have been a part of the Buddhist Empire of Ashoka.

Authenticated history of the district begins by about 493 A.D. when Raja dynasty of Rai dynasty came to the throne. In the Rai dynasty dominions were vast, extending from Kashmir and Qanauj to Qandahar and Seistan and on the west to Mekran and a part of Debal, while on the south to Surat. Their capital was Alor and during their rule Sindh was divided into four provinces of Brahman Abad, Seistan, Chach Pur and the province consisting of Multan and west Punjab. The Rai dynasty governed Sindh for 137 years and met its fate when the king Rai Sahasi 11, allowed a Brahman Chach to gain influence in his kingdom. On the death of Rai Sahasi 11, Chach married his widow and established himself on the throne after killing the rightful heir of the Rai. After a reign of 33 years, Chach died and was succeeded by his brother Chandar who after ruling for eight years was succeeded by his nephew Raja Dahir. During Dahir’s reign some Arab carrying ships carrying merchandise were attacked and plundered by his subjects. Arabs demanded compensation and on refusal by Raja Dahir, Muhammad Bin Qasim invaded this area in April 712 A.D and conquered the whole territory up to Multan. Dahir was killed in the battle at Pawar.

The territory remained under the various governors appointed by the Abbbaside and the Umayyad from 712-870 A.D. In 871 A.D the powers of Caliphs declined and the province of Sindh slipped from their control and went under the Balkh dynasty when two principalities, Multan and Mansura (Bahawalpur Division) were founded. In 985 A.D, the Balkh ruler was over thrown by Karamatian (a Persian sect.). In 978 A.D, when Subak Tagin invaded the subcontinent, he left the territory under the sovereignty of Hamid Khan Lodhi, who ruled till 1004 A.D. When Abdul Fateh, son of Hamid Khan Lodhi, revolted against Ghaznavids and was jailed by Mahmud Ghaznavi. Fourteen years later, Mahmud again visited Multan and marched to Somnath passing through Bahawalpur territory and on his way visited Moujgarh Fort (in Bahawalpur Tehsil) on his return from the conquest of Somnath. Mahmud placed a Karamatian prince on the throne in this area. The reign of Karamatian was followed by Sumras and Samas; who ruled it for nearly 500 years. In the 1578 A.D the territory was invaded and conquered by the Ghori Sultans of Delhi, who were succeeded by the Mughals. The exodus of the Abbasids nobles of Egypt to India had already started in the reign of Muhammad Taughlak bin Ghias ud Din. This Taughlak emperor of India recognised the Abbasside Caliph, Abdul Abbas Al Hakim in Egypt and accepted his spiritual leader ship. He even got the name of the caliph inscribed on the Indian coinage of his reign. In 1366 A.D Amir Sultan Ahmed 11, Abbassi, fiftieth direct descendant from Abdul Qasim Ahmed (the first Abbasid Caliph ruled in Egypt ) migrated to India with his family and a few hundred of followers entered into South through Balouchistan and settled down in Sindh. Those Arabs who had already settled in Sindh rallied round the Amir. In the course of time the Amir’s family gradually moved north-ward losing much of the ruler of Jasilmair.

In 1540, Duddees, a well known tribe rose to considerable power in the eastern part of Bahawalpur. In the same period, Amir Channi Khan Abbassi was made Ranjhazari by Prince Murad (the son of emperor Akbar Khan the Great). After the death of Amir Mohammad Channi Khan, quarrels arose between the two sections of Abbasis, the Kalhora and Daudpota tribes. The Arab tribes settled in Bahawalpur, sided with the latter that were destined to create and rule Bahawalpur State. Amir Bahadur Khan Abbassi, the chief of Daudpota then came to power he and his descendants wielded small principalities in Bahawalpur state into a united kingdom. Amir Muhammad Mubarak Khan 1, Abbasi who came to the power in 1702, was an able commander and leader. Throughout his reign he had to fight many battles against Kalhoras. He abdicated in 1723 A.D in favor of his son, Sadiq Mohammad Khan 1, who was killed in battle with Khuda Yar Kalhora. Amir Mohammad Bahawal Pur Khan 1, (1746-1949) ascended the throne in 1746. During his short rule, he built the towns of Bahawal Pur, Qaim Pur, Hasil Pur, Tranda Ali Murad Khan, Shabaz Pur and Mohammad Pur Lamma. During his reign three canals namely Khan Wah, Qutab Wah and Wahi Qaider Dina were dug. As a result the agriculture of the state improved considerably and the people became prosperous. Amir Muhammad Mubarak Khan 11 Abbassi ( 1749-1772 ) succeeded Amir Muhammed Bahawal Khan 1 Abbassi. In 1750, he captured Marot, Jaisalmair and Mad Wala and its dependencies west of the Sutlej and Panjnad, now part of Muzaffargarh district from Nahrs. But Doma territory which belonged to Makhdum Sheikh Raju of Sit Pur was also conquered. Later a part of the country including the important towns of Dunya Pur and Kahror were occupied. In 1776, the Sikhs confederates Jhanda Singh, Ganda Singh and Hari Singh invaded the Amir’s trans-Sutlej territories but were repulsed. Pak Pattan was fixed as the boundary between Bahawalpur and the Sikh state. Amir Mohammad Mubarak Khan 11 Abbassi was an able administrator and a powerful ruler. He took keen interest in building his army. Many of the forts on the border of the state were built during his reign. He kept the Sikhs in check. Many canals on which the prosperity of the district depended were constructed during his time. Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan II, Abbassi succeeded him and ruled from 1772 to 1809 A.D He assumed the title of Muhammad Bahawal Khan II. In 1777, the Sikh captured Multan. From 1785 to 1788, Amir had to encounter Taimur Shah, the powerful Durrani monarch of Kabul.

Bahawalpur was plundered by Durranis, the town was burnt and destroyed. The Fort Derawar was also occupied and Taimur Shah garrisoned it with troops under his general Shah Muhammad Khan Badozai, but eventually the Amir drove out the Durranis after fighting many fierce battles. In 1802 Shah Muhammad of Kabul sent a valuable Khilat and title of Mukhlis-ud-Daulla. A mint was started at Bahawalpur in 1802, where gold, silver and copper coins were made. The first treaty between Bahawalpur and the British government was affected in 1883, which remained in force till the August14th, 1947 when the state acceded to Pakistan. After Muhammad Bahawal Khan 11, prince Abdullah Khan under the title of Sadiq Muhammad Khan II (1809-1825) was proclaimed Amir of Bahawal Pur. The greater part of his reign passed in repelling the attacks of the Amirs of Sindh, in suppressing the rebellions of his own Umaras and protecting his conquered territories. On the death of Amir Sadiq Mohammad Khan II in 1825 A.D, Amir Bahawal Khan III ascended the throne in 1825 at Derawar. He ruled from 1825-1852 A.D. On his accession to the throne Amir sent presents to Maharaja sent his congratulations and some presents to Amir. As some dues for the lease of Dera Ghazi Khan had not been paid for several years, Ranjit Singh sent for a force under General Venture to expel the governor appointed there by the Amir of Bahawalpur without giving him any opportunity for parley. General Ventura occupied Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh and Multan, and they thus passed from the rule of the state. The Amir was very upset at this loss. Alliance with neighbouring states Sindh, Bikanair or Jaisalmair were out of question for they were already hostile to Bahawalpur.

Ranjit Singh sent a large force under Sham Singh Atari Wala to Kahror to invade the state on any pretext. There upon the Amir sent an envoy to the British Governor General at Shimla to invoke his intervention. Lord William Bentinck, the British Governor General, accepted the proposal and Ranjit Singh was warned not to cross the Sutlej. In 1833 Nawab negotiated a treaty of friendship and alliance with the British. In 1842 Parganas of Kot Sabzal and Ghung Bhara lost by the state in 1807, were conquered by the British from the Mirs of Sindh resorted to Bahawalpur State by Sir.
Charles Napier. In 1848 the Amir of Bahawalpur assisted the British in the battle of Multan. As a result of Bahawalpur British alliance Multan fell and was made part of the British Indian territory. On the death of Amir Bahawal Khan III, Sadiq Mohammad Khan III, (1852-1853) was crowned as Amir. On assuming rule, he confined prince Haji Khan and his brothers and treated them harshly. A large number of the Bahawalpur army was demobilized. All the grants, rights and claims of Daudpotas and other usual expenses were diminished and abolished. These events made the Amir unpopular.

On the 29th of Rabi-ul-Sani, 1269 A.H, Fateh Garh Fort was attacked at night. Prince Haji Khan, who was kept as prisoner, was freed and brought to Khan Pur. Prince Haji Khan, who was kept as a prisoner, was freed and brought to Khan Pur. Haji Khan entered Ahmed Pur East without any resistance and Sadiq Muhammad Khan 111 was imprisoned. Prince Rahim Yar Khan succeeded his father, the late Amir Fateh Khan Abbassi, as Muhammad Bahawal Khan IV (1858-1866). He was poisoned and died on the 25th March. 1866. On the death of Bahawal Khan IV, Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV was crowned when he was four and half years old. He was installed in 1879, when he attained maturity. In the interim period from 1866 to 1879, British Officers supervised the state. Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan V, the next successor was about 16 years of age at the time of his father’s death in 1907. He was then a child of three years old. He ruled the state till 1955 when it was integrated in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

Meer Syed Muhammad Hussain Esq. was the 1st Tehsildar of the Tehsil Rahim Yar Khan in last quarter of 19th century. He was a land lord of the area and very famous due to his kindness. He is called a Saint of this area. He was died getting an age of more then 100 years in 1963. In the old city of Rahim Yar Khan, one of the most populated bazaar/road is on his name. He had 8 sons and 7 daughters. All his sons were big government officials during the period of Ex-State of Bahawal Pur. His elder son Meer Syed Ghulam Muhammad Shah Esq. was the Deputy Collector of Irrigation Department and he was died in 1976 at Bahawal Pur at an age of 78 years. His 2nd son Meer Syed Muhammad Tassadaq Hussain Shah Esq. was the Police Inspector and famous from his Designation as “Kaptan Sahib”. He was died in 1953 at an age of 52 years at Bahawal Pur. His 3rd son was Meer Syed Tafazul Hussain Shah Esq. and he was a Sessions Judge. He died at an age of 62 years in 1964 at Rahim Yar Khan. The 4th son was Meer Syed Ahmed Hassan Shah Esq. and he was a Land Lord and he was also died in young age at Rahim Yar Khan. The 5th son of Meer Syed Muhammad Hussain Shah Esq. was Meer Syed Tajammul Hussain Shah Esq. He was Secretary of Municipal Committee, Rahim Yar Khan. The plane of new city of Rahim Yar Khan including buildings of Town Hall was made during his tenure. He died in Karachi in 1985. Another one was Meer Syed Altaf Hussain Shah Esq. and he was also a Police Inspector. He was also died at the age of 56 years in 1968 at Rahim Yar Khan. His 7th son Meer Syed Inayat Hussain Shah Esq. was also an Official who served the Government of Ex-State of Bahawal Pur as well as Pakistan as Extra Additional Commissioner of Bahawal Pur. He is still alive and residing at Bahawal Pur. The last son was Meer Syed Sajjad Hussain Shah Esq. He was also a land lord and very famous for his social work. He died at Bahawal Pur in 1970.

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Rahim Yar Khan – Culture & Custom

March 15, 2009 at 9:07 AM (Rahim Yar Khan City) ()

Rahim Yar Khan – Culture & Custom

Welcome to Rahim Yar Khan City . This is my 3rd post.

bismillah

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Culture & Customs.

Culture Dress and Ornaments.

The common attire in the rural area for the male is a long loose shirt hanging up to the knees, made of coarse cloth, a chadder and pagri. In the urban areas, Shalwar and a Dupatta is the dress of choice. In the Choulistan area, the women generally wear short shirts and ghagras and Dopattas. People use cheap and coarse cloth for dresses. For footwear, men in the rural areas wear locally made shoes prepared by the village cobbler (Mochi). The women of this area are very fond of wearing ornaments, both golden and silver.

Food Habits.

Wheat is the staple food grains of this area. Bajra or maize is also used in the villages in lieu of wheat. People in the rural area mostly consume vegetables, pulses, milk butter and ghee. The inhabitants ordinarily take meals thrice a day. The first in the morning before leaving for the work on the fields and consist of wheat bread with lassi (curd with water) milk and butter. The midday meal consists of wheat bread with lassi, onions, chilies, pickles, and seldom with cooked vegetables and meat. While evening meal is taken at home on return or in the field after the day’s work and generally comprises wheat bread with vegetables, beef or mutton and in the summers with milk. Vegetables are consumed mostly in winter when turnibs, radish and mustard are plentiful. Sag (pot herb) and dal are commonly used in super. Chopri roti (bread smeared with Ghee or butter) is given to the working male members of the family and the women folk rarely enjoy this buttered bread.

Addition of Gur or sugar makes it of surpassing richness. Tobacco is commonly smoked by the male cultivators. Dates and mangoes are the favorite fruits and the poor take them with chapati. Meat is rare commodity in villages available only at once a week and generally in the form of beef. In Sadiqabad area, a favorite dish of rich is Saji, a goat or lamb roasted in the oven or on fire.

Main Restaurants in City.

“Cafe Lamus” “The Food Trak” and “Hot Chiks” are best Hotels of this city. Some more famous restaurants are “Bhati Snicks”, “Pizza and Pizza”. There are so many small cafe in this city.

Betrothal and Marriage.

In an agrarian society, marriages are awaited occasions. Despite the hurry and pace of life brought in by the modern times with their tractors and threshers, there is enough time in the villages to look forward to the occasion and make preparations for it months in advance. It is an occasion for pomp and show and ostentation of joy, of settling family feuds, of sewing seeds of new tensions in the social and family relations. A marriage in a village, besides involving the spread around family also involves the whole village including those who work and help in making arrangements for the big occasion. But real strings are held in the hands of the man or woman who moves between the two houses, those of the groom and the bride. Such men and women belong usually to the families of the traditional barbers (Naais) who profess skills in many fields e.g. barbers, cooks, glib talkers, excellent emissaries between families, messengers and crude surgeons as they perform their skill from ordinary sores to the mandatory circumcision.

The bride’s parents are not supposed to broach the subject openly. On the occasion of engagement the groom’s family takes sweets, golden ring silk clothes for the bride and clothes other presents for the other members. The acceptance of such gifts is a sign that the engagement has been made. In return a Lungi and a gold ring is presented for the groom from the bride’s side. The elders of both families sit together and pray for the prosperity of the new relationship and success of the marriage. In the phase approaching the wedding ceremony, the groom is called Ghoat and the girl is called as Kanwar. A week later or before the marriage the girl is totally confined and locally made cosmetic (paste) called Cheeko or ubtun is applied to her body to brighten her complexion. As the date of the marriage approaches, colorful and melodious songs known as Sehras are sung by the relatives of the boy. However, rejoicing at the home of the bride is not appreciated.

On the night preceding the marriage, the palms of the bride and the groom are smeared with Mehandi and feasts are arranged for the number of the relatives who arrived at the groom’s house. The groom wears a colorful thread on his left wrist with a small Potli (knot) containing an iron ring and six herbs called Ganna. On the wedding day before the barat leaves for the brides house the groom is generally paid Niundra, in cash. He is not allowed to change his clothes, as he is supposed to put on new clothes at the bride residence where the old clothes are handed over to the family barber. On the arrival of Barat, a goat is demanded from the family of the groom and the ceremony is called Dheangen or Dheangana.

After the Nikkah ceremony the groom is made to sit on a basket made of straws and his given a bath where after he wears new clothes offered by his in laws. Oil and musk are applied on his head in a ceremony called Tail Lagana and vail (cash) are paid to the menials. After that the groom is taken to the bride’s room where the sisters of the bride take a chance to play some lovely tricks with him. One shoes of the groom are stolen by the girls and a piece of thread is revolved in a circle seven times around the thumb of his raised right hand and toe of the foot in circles in a pursuance of a ceremony called Dawan Watra. For the return of shoes the groom has to pay a handsome amount to his sisters in laws. Next the groom is taken to a room and seated on a cot with the bride facing towards him. Among the locals, their heads are touched seven times in a ceremony called Lavan or Sarmail. Muth Kholai rite is also performed and the groom opens flat the palm of the girl where after he is obliged to make some payment. During the Arsi ceremony the couple is enabled to see each other in the mirror. The Arsi the groom touches the foot of the father in law and other elders for this gesture of obedience he is paid in cash. Doli is placed on Kachawa or a car or a bullock cart.

The Saraiki people perform the rukhsti in different manner. They place a saddle on the horse back and both the bride and the groom are seated on it. There they are tied with a Dupatta at their waists before the departure of barat for the groom’s house. When the barat arrives back to the groom’s house some people slaughter a goat as a gesture of alm (sadqa) The girl is also paid Mun Dakhai or Ghond Kholai i.e.; face showing. In the late night the groom is left alone with the bride. Walima denotes consummation of marriage. On third day or in some cases on the seventh day in a Satwara ceremony the bride along with the groom returns to her parents for a couple of days. Child marriage was common in the backward families especially amongst the locals. However with the introduction of the Muslim family Laws Ordinance, 1962 which prohibits it, it is somewhat discouraged. This custom was very common as a result of the inhibition that the girls could not be married outside their families and also with a view to avoid the alienation of property. It is still practice in some rural areas. Such marriages are also the consequences of Wata-sata. There is an agreement called Lakhai Parahi which is resorted to it if a girl is a major and she is married to a boy without exchange but in turn the boys enter s an agreement that on the event on the birth of a daughter this new born baby would be betrothed to a male member of the mother’s family.

Births.

On the birth of a male child, sweet rice and milk are distributed in a ceremony called Chatti. In most cases the child is named at this stage. The head of the child is shaven usually on seventh day or during the period of Chillah and sacrifice of two goats in case of baby boy and a sheep or goat in case of baby girl is made in a ceremony called Aqiqa. Circumcision is also performed on the male infant at this stage. In certain cases meals are also served to the relatives and presents received for the baby. The mother during the first forty days, called the rakh period, is made to avoid visits to a house where there has been a recent death.

Deaths.

The dead body is given a bath (Ghusal) and is wrapped in a shroud (kafan). After the bath, perfume is sprayed on it and Namaz-E-Janaza is offered. After this the dead body is laid down in prescribed position, its head turned towards the holy Kaaba. Some families place dead bodies in wooden boxes before burial. For identification purposes, an epitaph is erected at the head of the grave. Sometimes a pacca tomb is also built. After the burial, prayers are also offered for the departed soul once near the grave and again outside the graveyard. Qul khawani is held by recitation from Holy Quran and alms (Khairat) are distributed for the salvation of the deceased.

Chehlum is observed on fortieth day of death when new garments are given to Imama of the mosque and to the person who bathed the dead body. In some families, on the death of an old man, the Chehlum ceremony is celebrated with a sumptuous feast for the relatives and friends. Instead of Chelum certain families observe jumarats and on every Thursday, meals are distributed amongst the poor, this continuous for seven consecutive Thursdays.

Every year death anniversary is observed and food is distributed amongst the poor by the successor of the deceased. This rite is called Varheen. There is custom amongst the Choulistani, his heirs are obliged to offer one kilo of desi ghee and seven breads to each and every person of the tribe when they turn up to offer condolence, spreading over a period of one year. On the expiry of one year, all the tribal men assemble and are again served with meals by the heirs of the deceased. On that occasion, the most respected elder of the tribe declares the closure of the distribution of Sat Roti. A tale goes that a Choulistani Sardar died leaving behind a large number of cattle, sheep and goats and his heirs had to sell them off to observe the custom of Sat Roti in consequence thereof, they had to resort to begging. The custom of Sat Roti is performed to satisfy the vanity of the deceased and his successors.

Sports and Festivals.

Kabaddi s liked and played almost in all urban and rural areas of the districts. Besides, hockey, badminton, football, tennis, cricket, lawn tennis are played. Wrestlers of the district have position among wrestlers of the province. There is a Sports Committee headed by the Deputy Commissioner for the Organizing various Tournaments in the district. A District Sports Organizer also assists the Deputy Commissioner as Secretary of the Sports Committee in this respect. Twenty Sports Associations are working for promoting various sports in the district with the idea to prepare nursery for sports.

Religion.

The population of the district is predominantly Muslims i.e. 96.7 percent. The next higher percentage is of Hindu (Jati) with 1.8 percent, followed by Scheduled Castes 0.6 percent. While other minorities like Christians, Ahmadi etc. are very small in number. The proportion of population of Muslims is higher in urban than rural areas. Christians are mostly living in urban areas representing 1.2 percent as compare to 0.2 percent in rural areas. Ahmadis are equal in proportion in urban and rural areas.

Population.

Demography.

According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the total population of Rahim Yar Khan district was 3,141,053 of which 19.16% were urban an intercensal percentage increase of 70.6 since March, 1981 when it was 1,841,451. The average annual growth rate was 3.2 percent during this period. The total area of the district is 11,880 square kilometers which gives population density of 264 persons per square kilometer as against 155 persons observed in 1981 indicating a fast growth rate of the district.

Arain is the major tribe of the district. Arains are the decadents of Umayyad Arabs from Aretha who entered in Sub-continent through Debal, Sindh with Muhammad Bin Qasim in 711 AD and were arrived in this region in April 712 AD. They were known as their Arabic name Areehai which change to Arain. Due to accompaning with Muhammad Bin Qasim a considerable population of Arains were settled in the district before partition. After partition a huge population of Arains revirted in the district from East Punjab. Other tribes include Jat, major clans are Cheemas and Warrich, Rajput and Gujjar. They have all come from the adjoining districts of East and West Punjab . The old settlers are the Joya, Wattoo, Daudpota, Balouch, Syed and Pathan. In Cholistan area there are some local tribes including Bohar, Lark, and Bhen. The Jats and Rajputs came from Rajputana and Jaisalmir and converted to Islam in the reign of Feroz Shah Tughlak.

Population Size, Growth And Distribution.

The total population of Rahim Yar Khan district was 3,141,053 as enumerated in march, 1998 with an intercensal percentage increase of 70.6 since March, 1981 when it was 1,841,451 souls. The average annual growth rate was 3.2 percent during this period. The total area of the district is 11,880 square kilometers which gives population density of 264 persons per square kilometer as against 155 persons observed in 1981 indicating a fast growth rate of the district.

Rural/Urban Distribution.

The urban population was 616,582 or 19.6 percent of the total population of the district which grew at an average rate of 4.3 percent during 1981-98 and had decreased from 4.7 percent observed during 1972-81. There are three Municipal Committees and five Town Committees in the district.

Religion.

The population of the district is predominantly Muslims i.e. 96.7 percent. The next higher percentage is of Hindu (Jati) with 1.8 percent, followed by Scheduled Castes 0.6 percent. While other minorities like Christians, Ahmadi etc. are very small in number. The proportion of population of Muslims is higher in urban than rural areas. Christians are mostly living in urban areas representing 1.2 percent as compare to 0.2 percent in rural areas. Ahmadis are equal in proportion in urban and rural areas.

Mother Tongue.

Siraiki is the predominant language being spoken in the district, representing 62.6 percent of the population, followed by Punjabi and Urdu spoken by 27.3 and 2.9 percent respectively and Sindhi by 2.0 percent while others speak Pushto, Balochi, Bravi, Dari etc.

Land.

Physical Features & Topography.

This district is divided into three main physical features i.e. (a) Riverine area. (b) Canal irrigated area and (c) Desert area which is called Cholistan. The Riverine area of the district lies close on the southern side of the Indus river mainly falling in the river bed. The canal irrigated area lies on the South and is separated by main Minchan Bund. The approximate height of the irrigated area is 150 to 200 meters above the sea level. The third part of the area called Cholistan lies in the south of the irrigated tract up to the Indo-Pak border. The surface of the desert consists of a succession of sand dunes rising at places to a height of 150 metres and covered with the vegetation peculiar to sandy tracts.

Rivers.

The Indus flows on the northern outskirts of the districts of Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffargarh. There is no other river, Nullah or lake in this district.

Weather.

The climate of the district is hot and dry in the summer and cold and dry in the winter. The summer season is comparatively longer. It starts in April and continues until October. The winter season goes from November to March. However, the month of March and November are pleasant. Dust storms are frequent during the summer season. The average rain fall is about 100 millimetres.

Flora.

The flora of the district characterizes two major ecological divisions, northern and southern. The botanical life found in the northern half is like that of the rest of the irrigated tracts at central Punjab. The human interference in the form of irrigation network has greatly damaged the natural environment. Increases in cultivation, waterlogged areas, and salinity have badly hurt plant life. Because of the increase of salinity at the surface, only salt resistant plants can survive in most of the area. The southern half of the district, characterized by sand dunes, is mostly barren. The exception is in the rainy season when multitudes of ephemeral plants come up and transform the bare land into a lush green carpet. These ephemeral plants complete their life cycles before the summer heat arrives, leaving the land bare and dry.

Fauna.

The arid land, generally referred to as the Cholistan desert, has a lot of wild life. Wild cats, the Chinkara deer, a variety of pigs, jackals, foxes, badgers, porcupines, squirrels, gerbils, wild rats, mongeese, poisonous snakes, hog deer, blue bulls, ravine deer, sand grouse, wild lizards, wild egrets are among many other creatures are found in the district.

Races and Tribes.

The major tribes in the clony area are the Mir Syed Bokhari, Qureshi Hashmi, Laarr, Jhullan, Warind, Dahar, Drigh, Khalti, Dhukkur, Jhabail, Nonari, Arain Jat, Rajput and Gujjar. They have all come from the adjoining districts of East and West Punjab . The old settlers are the Joya, Wattoo, Daudpota, Balouch, Syed and Pathan. In Cholistan area the Bohar, Lark, Bhen, who came from Arabia to preach Islam. The Jats and Rajputs came from Rajputana and Jaisalmir and converted to Islam in the reign of Feroz Shah Tughlak.

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Rahim Yar Khan – Economy

March 15, 2009 at 8:40 AM (Rahim Yar Khan City) ()

Rahim Yar Khan – Economy

Welcome to Rahim Yar Khan City . This is my 4th post.

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Economy.

Rahim Yar Khan is a commercial and industrial centre; it is connected with the rest of the country through rail and air including the other industrial hubs such as Lahore, Karachi, Quetta and Faisalabad. Industries include fertilizer, cosmetics, glass manufacturing, cotton production and processing, large textile units, flour mills, sugar and oil mills and large-scale power generation projects. Cotton production inPunjab Province starts from this area. Mango and Malta are two main fruits of this city. Cottage industries include ginning, pottery/clay products, agricultural machinery, handicrafts, and embroidery.

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Rahim Yar Khan – Education

March 15, 2009 at 8:35 AM (Rahim Yar Khan City) ()

Rahim Yar Khan – Education

Welcome to Rahim Yar Khan City . This is my 5th post.

bismillah

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Education.

Schools & Colleges.

• Government Pilot Secondary School
• Government Colony High School
• Government Ta’meer-e-Millat High School
• Government Comprehensive High School
• Army Public School(Principal is Jamil Abbsai)
• Sheikh Zayed High School
• Beaconhouse School System
• Al-Huda Grammar School
• The Educator School
• Sheikh Zayed Medical College
• Khawaja Fareed Government College, Rahim yar khan.
• National Institute of Computer and Advanced Science (NICAAS)
• Punjab College of Science
• Al-Basit National School, Gulshan-e-Iqbal.
• Superior Group of College.

Higher Education.

Masters Level classes have been conducted in Khawaja Fareed Govt Post Graduate College. The students of Post Graduate classes securing top positions in Islamia University’s centralized examination system, within limited facilities.

• A campus of Islamia University, Bahawalpur is located in the city, comprising two buildings:
• Liaqat Campus near to Khwaja Fareed college, teaching Computer Science and Management Science.
• Jinah Campus, 2km away near Hafiz colony, teaching Education and Commerce.

Additionally, there is the Shaikh Zayed Medical College & Hospital.

Literacy And Education Attainment Literacy.

The literacy ratio in the district has increased from 20.0 percent in 1981 to 33.1 percent in 1998. The literacy ratio for males is 43.4 percent as against 21.8 percent for females. The ratio is much higher in urban when compared with rural areas both for male and female.

In 1998, 33.1 percent of the population was reported as being able to read at least one language. This was up from 20 percent in 1981. In urban areas, 65.0 percent of males and 48.4 percent of women were able to read. In rural areas, 37.9 percent of males, and 14.9 percent of females were able to read.

Immunization.

In 1998, 65.9 percent of children were reported to have been vaccinated in the Rahim Yar Khan district. Reported as not vaccinated were 9.9 percent of children. And for 24.2 percent, it was not known whether they had or hadn’t been vaccinated.

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Rahim Yar Khan – Worth Visiting Sites

March 15, 2009 at 8:07 AM (Rahim Yar Khan City) ()

Rahim Yar Khan – Worth Visiting Sites

Welcome to Rahim Yar Khan City . This is my 6th post.

bismillah

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Rahim Yar Khan – Worth Visiting Sites.

Rahim Yar Khan City.

Rahim Yar Khan city is situated in the center of the district. It is a prominent railway junction, on the main line of Pakistan Railways, between Lahore andKarachi . It is at a distance of 634 kilometers from Karachi , 566 kilometers from Lahore and 176 kilometers from Bahawalpur . Shahi Road , Railway road, Colony Gulberg road and Hospital road are the important roads in the city. Zaffar Market, New Sadiq Bazaar, Sadar Bazaar and Grain Market are the shopping centers in the city. A stadium known as Mahmud Stadium is situated at a distance of one kilometer from the city. It has a seating capacity for 15,000 persons and contains grounds for cricket, football, hockey and volley ball. There is Sadiq Club, which is located in Officers Colony and have spacious games. It has a swimming pool and vast halls. There are spacious grounds for various games. It has a swimming pool and vast halls. There are three swimming pools in the city.

Stadiums.

A cricket ground called ‘Mehmood Stadium’ which was constructed in 1952.

Parks & Zoo.

Rahimyar Khan has a central City Park and City Zoo.

Desert Palace.

Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, former President of the UAE constructed and maintained a private residencd just outside the city called ‘Desert Palace’ or Abu Dhabi Palace. It is now owned by his son and successor Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan.

Shaikh Zayed International Airport.

Shaikh Zayed Airport, also known as Rahim Yar Khan Airport, is located nearby. It is named in honour of Shaikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, as it was originally built for his exclusive use, so that he may visit his “Desert Palace” just outside the city; he later donated it to the Government of Pakistan.

Bagh-e-Bahisht, (The Garden of Heaven), Sadiq Abad.

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It is one of the most beautiful and biggest gardens of this area. It is 5 km far from SADIQ Abad. Its 1 st owner was Meer Syed Abid Hussain Esq. who had built this garden. The garden consists upon more than 75 acrs. After his death, his only son Meer Syed Zahid Hussain Esq. reconstructed it with his full zeal and zest and brought the each and every plant from all over the world and made it the beautiful lest one of this area. After his death in 2003, his only son Meer Syed Fazal Ellahi Fazli is maintaining it with the same spirit of his father and grandfather and still improving. This garden is, although, the private but also open for the public at prescribed hours and days.

Mubarak Urdu Library, Muhammad Abad, (Sanjar Pur).

Late Sayyed Mubarak Shah Jillani Made this personal library in the remote area of Rahim Yar Khan. Now a days library is looked after by Sayed Anis Shah Jillani. there are books of rare quality on English, Urdu , Saraiki and Hindi. there is large collection of books on and about Asadullah Ghalib. there are found old scripts of the famous and recognised poets and prose writers.

Mir Syed Zahid Hussain Library, Sadiq Abad.

Late Meer Syed Zahid Hussain Esq. made a very good and the biggest personal library of this area which has very antique collection of books on each and every topic. Some books including Quran Shareef are very very old and hand written scripts which are very prestigious back ground. Now, his only son Meer Syed Fazal Ellahi Fazli is maintaining this library. This library is also open for public.

Fauji Fertilizer Factory, Machi Goth.

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This factory is 5 km far from Sadiq Abad and one of the biggest fertilizer factories in Asia . It was build by Fauji Foundation which is for old/ex-army servants. It was constructed in 1974 and was completed in 1979.

Fatimah Fertilizer Factory, Machi Goth.

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A newly under construction fertilizer factory which is called to be the biggest one in Asia.

Bhutta Wahan.

It is situated at a distance of 16 kilometers in the North of Rahim Yar Khan, on the lost river Hakra. The village is said to be named after the name of Raja Bhutta who captured this locality after Raja Dahir. This village is also claimed to be the birth place of Sassi, the renowned heroine of Sassi-Pannun and of Ab-ul-Fazal and Fiazi, sons of Mullah Mubarik.

Baghla Fort.

Remnants and ruins of this fort are about 34 kilometers in the south of Rahim Yar Khan city, in Cholistan area. In 1767 A.D., Ali Murad Pirjani, founder of Trinda Ali Murad Khan (a village in Thesil Rahim Yar Khan ) built this fort.

Islam Garh Fort.

Islam Garh ,the old Bhinwar Fort, was built by Rawal Bhim Singh in Samabat in 1665, as the following inscription on its gate in Babri character proves “Samabat 1665 Asuj Wadi 2, Maharaj Rawal Siri Bhim Singh ji Maharaj”. The Fort is situated in the Cholistan area of Tehsil Khanpur. It is 46 kilometers south east of Baghla Fort. The fort is in a dilapidated state.

Khair Garh Fort.

Remnants and ruins of this fort are located, about 40 kilometers south of Khanpur Town , in the Cholistan area. In 1189 A.H. Haji Khan, son of Ikhtiar Khan built it and named it Khair Garh.

Mau Bubarik Fort.

According to Tarikh-e-Murad, a fort was built by Raj Hans Karar in Mau Mubarik as a residence for his mother, hence the name Mau refers to mother in local language. The fort was taken by Shah Arghun in 1525 A.D. It was one of the six fortresses of Raj Sahasi 11. It had 20 bastions and Towers. The ramparts were about 549 meters in circumference and the walls very strongly and thickly built. Here the shrine of a saint Sheikh Hakim is of great importance.

Pattan Minarah.

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The ruins of Pattan Minar are located at a distance of about 8 kilometers in east south of Rahim Yar Khan city. It has variously been described as the remains of Asahoka period, who built it in 250 B.C. or a Buddist monastery. Nearby the minar, remains of a fort, a mosque and some tunnels are also visible. About 110 years ago Colonel Minchin a political agent of Ex-Bahawalpur state started the excavation of these tunnels but discontiued digging for some reasons or other. According to Colonel Toy it was the capital of the Hindu kingdom in 10 A.D. In the mid of the 18 th century A.D. Fazal Elahi Khan Halani a Daupauta chief destroyed it and used its materials in the construction of Baghla and Dingar Fort.

Bhong Mosque.

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It is situated in the village Bhong at a distance of 28 kilometers from Sadiqabad and 53 kilometers from Rahim Yar Khan. It was constructed by Rias Ghazi Muhammad, a big landlord of Bhong. It has beautiful design of arts and crafts, with marble stones of various kinds and colors. It is well electrified with chandeliers of different kinds. It is a beautiful piece of architecture. Being a worth seeing religious place, tourists from far off places visit it frequently.

Palace Sultan Of Abu Zhabi.

It is built by Shiekh Zayad- Bin-Sultan, ruler of Abu Dhabi . It is situated in sandy desert of Cholistan at a distance of 18 kilometers south-east from Rahim Yar Khan. It has large and spacious buildings having two separate portions for ladies and gentlemen. Each portion contains rooms and chambers. There are beautiful lawns in it having different beds of flowers along the well-shaped roads. Many domestic birds like peacocks are also kept there. Sultan of Abu Dhabi visits this district for hunting and stays in this palace.

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